This is a pilot project currently underway, that is being highlighted by BBC in the documentary series “South pacific”. The film was made under the guidance of Jonathan Clay who was grateful enough to share this clip to the world.
Acclimating Your Saltwater and Freshwater Fish – Float vs. Drip
Author: Kara K.
The most commonly used method of acclimating freshwater and saltwater fish. This is when you float the bag that your fish has been placed in, in the water of your aquarium. Floating for approximately 30 minutes ensures that the temperature in the bag water slowly begins to match the temperature of your aquarium, making it less stressful on the fish. After floating for 15 minutes, double the volume of water in the bag with your aquarium water. Continue floating for another 10 minutes or so.
Just dumping them into the aquarium without acclimating is likely to cause enough shock to kill your new fish. After acclimating, the bag is opened or cut, and the fish is taken out of the bag with a net and released into it’s new home.
Pros: Temperature is most likely to cause shock in fish. The Float method ensures that the dangers of temperature change are eliminated.
Cons: Owners commonly will dump the bag water into their aquarium along with the new fish. If the water in your new fish’s bag is contaminated with whatever was in it’s previous aquarium, that bacteria will then be in yours.
Less heard of than the common float method. Drip acclimation requires:
1. A clean bowl large enough to hold your new fish and twice the water contents of its bag.
2. A net.
3. Air pump tubing.
With the tubing, create a siphon from your aquarium, into the clean bowl. Place the all contents of your new fish’s bag into the bowl. Siphon should drip 2-3 drops per second (a knot can be tied in it, and loosened/tightened to adjust the water flow) into the bowl. Let drip until the water in the bowl has doubled in volume. This process should take approximately 30-45 minutes, and definitely no longer than an hour. With a net, gently scoop your fish from underneath and place him into the aquarium.
Pros: Especially handy for saltwater fish because it gradually acclimates them to the salinity, pH, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels in your established aquarium.
Cons: Temperatures in the low volume of water held in the bowl can drop considerably in half an hour, increasing the risk that your fish will suffer temperature change shock.
The greatest threats affecting the Lake Victoria cichlid are human-related and include pressures from the introduced Nile perch, pollution, and algae build-up. These factors are causing cichlid species to go extinct before scientists can even name them all. Biologists believe that 300 of the possible 500 cichlid species native to Lake Victoria have already gone extinct.
The AZA Freshwater Fish Taxon Advisory Group and the Lake Victoria Cichlids Species Survival Plan® Program manage over 2,800 cichlids representing 13 different species at 15 AZA-accredited aquariums. These institutions have created a collaborative breeding program that strives to preserve many cichlid species for the future.
The AZA Conservation Endowment Fund has provided over $15,000 to the Toronto Zoo, New England Aquarium, and Columbus Zoo and Aquarium for their conservation and education work with the local National Museums of Kenya and the Fisheries Resources & Research Institute (FIRI) in Uganda. The goal of the FIRI is to implement conservation methods for cichlid biodiversity in the region by developing aquariums and pond aquaculture for breeding purposes, to educate the local population about the issues affecting these species, and to urge local fishermen to throw back fish that are too small to eat in hopes of building a sustainable population for the future.
Lake Victoria Cichlid Facts
|Size||Their color may vary. Males are generally brightly colored, while females are more muted in color.|
|Appearence||Cichlids are only found in the Lake Victoria Basin of Africa, which includes the countries of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.|
|Habitat||Cichlids are only found in the Lake Victoria Basin of Africa, which includes the countries of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.|
|Diet||Their diet differs between species, but cichlids eat algae, plants, snails, crustaceans, other fish and even members of their own species.|
|Breeding||Cichlids are “mouth brooders,” which means eggs and wrigglers develop in the female’s mouth and can number from 10 to 80 wrigglers!|
Most Common Mistakes Made by Saltwater Aquarium Keepers
By Stan & Debbie Hauter, About.com Guide
No matter what kind of aquarium keeper you are, here is a list of the most common mistakes you may be making. These problems can be avoided if you’re aware of them before you start an aquarium.
Overfeeding Fish and Invertebrtes
Uneaten food just lays on the bottom of the tank, creating nitrates and overloading the biological filter.
Not fully understanding the nutritional requirements of their fish, the tendency of many people is to “throw food” at fish in order to fulfill their requirements. If the fish are not accepting the food offered, many aquarists will “throw even more” at the fish, thinking that the fish just isn’t seeing the food. Feed once, twice per day, or once every 2 or 3 days? How Often Should I Feed My Fish? helps you understand a fish’s requirements.
Know what is in the food you are feeding by comparing the nutrients in commercial foods, purchase only high quality foods and feed only what your fish will consume in 2-3 minutes per feeding.
Moving Too Fast
“Patience” is a requirement with just about anything that you do with a saltwater aquarium. Far too many people report problems after they have put a tank together, because they are just moving too fast! Far too often we have read aquarists comments like, “I need test kits? What for, and what kind?” Of course this is after they have had a tank for some time. A high percentage of people do not take the time to read and study up on the hobby before getting started.
Overloading the System
A problem that goes hand-in-hand with moving too fast is craming too much livestock and/or live rock into the aquarium all at once, especially in a tank that is not fully cycled, or has just completed the cycling process. Even in a well established system, placing too many new additions into the tank to quickly can cause new tank syndrome. Slow down! Saltwater aquarium keeping is not a timed event, so take it easy, and work on your patience skills.
Inadequate Filtration and Water Circulation
Having sufficient biological filtration is a primary key to success in keeping a saltwater aquarium. There are a number of filtration methods to choose from, but not making the right filter selection for the bio-load planned for your tank can lead to a wide variety of problems. Whether it be biological, mechanical, or chemical, it’s better to have more, rather than too little filtration.
This same concept applies to circulation of the water in the aquarium as well. The lack of good water flow throughout the system can lead to problems with low DO (dissolved oxygen), the build up of slime or other types of nuisance algae, prevention of stationary animals receiving food, and more. The solution here? Add a powerhead or two, or a surge device.
When it comes to diagnosing diseases, saltwater ich is the biggest problem. It is easy to confuse Oodinium (Amyloodinium ocellatum – a.k.a. Marine Velvet or Coral Fish Disease) with White Spot Disease (Cryptocaryon irritans). They are similar but two quite different types of saltwater ich, and each responds to different types of treatment. It is important to properly diagnose and treat these parasites, as well as other diseases.
Way too often one or more remedies are just thrown at a sick or ailing fish without knowing what the problem is. Medications should only be used when necessary, and whenever possible in a quarantine tank. The most important factor with medications is to use one that is formulated to “target” the specific disease or diseases you are dealing with.
Purchasing Animals Without Knowing Anything About Them
It never ceases to amaze us how often people select new additions for their aquarium without knowing what the animals are, how to care for and feed them. Before purchasing anything, take the time to obtain information about it first. You shouldn’t buy on impulse because you like the pretty colors a fish has, how cute or stunning it looks, or for any other “touchy-feely” reason, or if a sales person can’t provide you with critical information you need to know about a particular animal.
Statements like my wrasse ate my hermit crab, my tangs just won’t get along, and similar ones are all too frequently heard. Purchasing livestock without knowing whether or not they will peacefully reside with other tankmates can lead to dead or injured animals, as well as stress related diseases. Use common sense and learn about the compatibility of animals you are considering for your aquarium, before putting them together!
Purchasing Animals in Poor Health
One of the easiest things to do when selecting a critter is to determine whether or not it is healthy. In a simple phrase, most sick fish don’t eat. Before purchasing a fish or other animal, it is best to have a sale’s person in a store show you that it is in fact eating. On your part, learn how to recognize the symptoms or outward signs of common illnesses so you know what to look for when inspecting livestock to buy.
Using a Poor Quality Fresh Water Source
Although many aquarists do so, choosing to use water straight from the tap or unpurified water of another source to make up saltwater solutions and to top off a tank can lead to many water quality issues in aquariums. Using a water purification filter, buying clean natural sea water, or prefiltered RO/DI water from a reliable supplier is an investment that will pay for itself in the long run.
Lack of Proper Tank Maintenance
Well-maintained saltwater systems seldom experience high nitrate, bacterial outbreaks, or other water quality issues. To avoid the usual pitfalls with problems in this area of aquaria keeping, set up and follow a regular maintenance routine.
- Purify your tap water with a triple carbon prefilter and reverse osmosis or deionizer system;
- Use Kalkwasser regularly to keep the pH between 8.2 and 8.4;
- Do water changes every 2 to 3 weeks;
- With water changes, vacuum off as much as possible of the debris in the rock crevices;
- Change your prefilter pad every week;
- Have the lighting on for no more than 9 hours a day, using the wattage recommended
- Do not use unnecessary additives
- Employ herbivorous livestock (turbo snails, small hermit crabs, hard star fish, and algae-eating fish such as yellow tangs, blennies, angels, etc.).
By following the recommendations here, you should be able to manage the micro-algae in your tank. These procedures will ensure that your reef will not be overtaken by green, brown, or red algae that would cover desirable livestock and organisms (such as the hard pink coralline algae) that depend on water flow and light.
I cannot overemphasize the importance of following all the previous recommendations, as they will ensure that the undesirable algae do not have the conditions they need to survive, and undesirable algae are the scourge of reef keeping. Follow the suggested procedures, and the algae should be manageable!
Micro-algae will grow!
The growth of micro-algae is a natural occurrence and will happen in most healthy tanks. It is only when the algae become unmanageable that we have a problem. Managing the growth of micro-algae means (1) limiting the conditions they need to thrive, (2) having livestock that will eat most of the algae, and (3) removing the remainder by hand with magnets, blade scrapers, and brushes.
In my tanks, brown and some green algae form on the glass on a regular basis. They do not thrive for long in other areas; they are only a problem on the glass and overflow pipes.
The glass is easily cleaned with an algae glass-cleaning magnet. When buying such a magnet, purchase the largest one you can find. Usually the larger the size, the stronger the magnet and the better the cleaning capabilities (pull) it will have. The magnet does a nice job for weekly or twice-weekly cleaning. Little bright green patches will eventually form. These should be scraped off with a razor blade. You should only have to “blade” the glass about once a month at the most.
WHY REEF STORES DO NOT HAVE AN ALGAE PROBLEM
Keep in mind that algae will grow and will have to be removed by hand on a regular basis. Do not be deceived when you go into your favorite reef store and observe that their tanks have no visible algae. You may think, “My tank has algae, why doesn’t his?” The fact is that every morning someone cleans the glass and maintains the tanks so they will look absolutely pristine. This gives the impression that the people in the store know something about water quality that you don’t. In fact, all they are doing is daily maintenance, in addition to the procedures listed above.
Then of course, the remaining algae will be removed by hand, particularly from the glass and overflow pipes. By using a strong magnet or a razor blade for the glass, and a bottle brush for the overflow, it is not a problem to remove undesirable algae.
It is important to remember that we want to remove the algae, not just dislodge it. When using the magnet, after a few swipes you will feel the scrubber part of the magnet cleaner getting full of algae. Take this to the sink and rinse it off. Resume cleaning and repeat the rinsing process as often as needed. Rinse the scrubber when you are done. When using the bottle brush, swirl it to trap the algae in the bristles, and rinse it out in the sink.
A strong algae magnet and bottle brush are useful tools. Some algae, of course, will get away from you. This cannot be avoided. Remove as much as you can, within reason. Algae that are dislodged and left in the tank will either reattach elsewhere, decompose into food for other algae, or get trapped in the prefilter.
Summary of algae management:
If you follow the suggestions I have given, it can be done easily. Algae accumulation can be a serious threat to the enclosed reef system. Left unmanaged, it can become a problem that would test anyone’s patience and sanity; it is not something you want to battle with! However, if you select your livestock carefully and follow the other recommendations I have discussed, the naturally-occurring algae in your tank will be a good food source for the livestock, and what they don’t eat can be managed with regular maintenance.
By Shirlie Sharp
The Peace Lily Vase-Siamese Fighting fish combination has sparked more debate than almost any other aquarium topic. The pivotal question is if it’s safe for the fish. What is my stand on the issue? I do not consider a flower vase a healthy environment for a Betta (aka: Siamese Fighting fish) for a number of reasons.
Rice Paddy Argument
The argument made for keeping a Betta in a vase is that pumps, filters, and other aquarium equipment, do not exist in nature. By putting the fish in what appears to be a natural environment the assumption is made that it is inherently healthier than an aquarium. That simply isn’t the case.
It is true that in nature the Betta lives in shallow rice paddies and swamps. However, those waters represent a complete ecological system that a small vase cannot replicate. Those seemingly small rice paddies are actually part of a much larger body of water that dilutes toxins. Scavengers and bacteria present in the water break down wastes and render them harmless to fish living there.
The water volume isn’t the only problem with a vase. In nature, the Betta Betta lives on a diet that consists predominantly of insects and insect larvae. In fact, Bettas are valued for their role in controlling mosquitoes in their native habitat. The Betta’s digestive tract is built to digest meat, rather than vegetable material. Its upturned mouth is designed to grab insects that have fallen into the water.
A diet consisting of vegetable matter may keep a Betta alive for a while, but it is neither natural nor healthy. Over time, the Betta will slowly be starved of the proper nutrients and more easily fall victim to disease.
Water temperature in the Lily-Betta combination is another problem. The primary reason a Betta in a small bowl is often listless is due to low water temperature. The Siamese Fighting fish is native to countries such as Thailand, where the climate is hot and moist. The ideal water temperature for the Betta is about 80 degrees Fahrenheit.
Without a heater, the water in a vase will be too cool for comfort most of the time. Although the Betta can survive at lower temperatures, when the water is too chilly they become lethargic and may even refuse to eat.
Lastly, there is the issue of how the Betta breathes. Like other fish, the Betta taakes in oxygen from the water. However, the Betta also has a special organ that allows it to breathe air directly from the surface of the water. This organ is what allows the Betta to live in water that has very little oxygen.
Studies have shown that fish with this organ must regularly breathe some air at the surface, even if there is sufficient oxygen in the water itself. Unfortunately, for the Betta, if the Lily vase is not set up with an open space at the top of the water, the Betta may become deprived of the oxygen it needs to survive.
The Peace Lily Vase-Siamese Fighting combination has persisted as a popular fad, but it is neither natural nor healthy for the fish. A dog or cat owner would not shut their pet in a small closet with minimal heat, food, and air. Should fish be treated any less humanely?
|Disease Type: Environmental
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aquarium filters are critical components of both freshwater and marine aquaria. Aquarium filters remove physical and soluble chemical waste products from aquaria simplifying maintenance. Furthermore, aquarium filters are necessary to support life as aquaria are relatively small, closed volumes of water compared to the natural environment of most fish.
Animals, typically fish, kept in fish tanks produce waste from excrement and respiration. Another source of waste is uneaten food or plants and fish which have died. These waste products collect in the tanks and contaminate the water. As the degree of contamination rises, the risk to the health of the aquaria increases and removal of the contamination becomes critical. Filtration is a common method used for maintenance of healthy aquaria.
 Biological filtration and the nitrogen cycle
Proper management of the nitrogen cycle is a vital element of a successful aquarium. Excretia and other decomposing organic matter produce ammonia which is highly toxic to fish. Bacterial processes oxidize this ammonia into the slightly less toxic nitrites, and these are in turn oxidized to form the much less toxic nitrates. In the natural environment these nitrates are subsequently taken up by plants as fertilizer and this does indeed happen to some extent in an aquarium planted with real plants.
An aquarium is, however, an imperfect microcosm of the natural world. Aquariums are usually much more densely stocked with fish than the natural environment. This increases the amount of ammonia produced in the relatively small volume of the aquarium. The bacteria responsible for breaking down the ammonia colonize the surface of any objects inside the aquarium. A biological filter is nothing more than a chemically inert porous sponge, which provides a greatly enlarged surface area on which these bacteria can develop. These bacterial colonies take several weeks to form, during which time the aquarium is vulnerable to a condition commonly known as “new tank syndrome” if stocked with fish too quickly. Accumulation of toxic ammonia from decomposing wastes is the largest cause of fish mortality in new, poorly maintained or overloaded aquariums. In the artificial environment of the aquarium, the nitrogen cycle effectively ends with the production of nitrates. In order that the nitrate level does not build up to a harmful level regular partial water changes are required to remove the nitrates and introduce new, uncontaminated water.
 Mechanical and chemical filtration
The process of mechanical filtration removes particulate material from the water column. This particulate matter may include uneaten food, faeces or plant or algal debris. Mechanical filtration is typically achieved by passing water through materials which act as a sieve, physically trapping the particulate matter. Removal of solid waste can be as simple as physical hand netting of debris, and/or involve highly complex equipment. All removal of solid wastes involve filtering water through some form of mesh in a process known as mechanical filtration. The solid wastes are first collected, and then must be physically removed from the aquarium system. Mechanical filtration is ultimately ineffective if the solid wastes are not removed from the filter, and are allowed to decay and dissolve in the water.
Dissolved wastes are more difficult to remove from the water. Several techniques, collectively known as chemical filtration, are used for the removal of dissolved wastes, the most popular being the use of activated carbon and foam fractionation. To a certain extent, healthy plants extract dissolved chemical wastes from water when they grow, so plants can serve a role in the containment of dissolved wastes.
A final and less common situation requiring filtration involves the desire to sterilize water born pathogens. This sterilization is accomplished by passing aquarium water through filtration devices which expose the water to high intensity ultraviolet light and/or exposing the water to dissolved ozone gas.
 Materials suitable for aquarium filtration
Numerous materials are suitable as aquarium filtration media. These include synthetic wools, known in the aquarium hobby as filter wool, made of polyethylene terephthalate or nylon. Synthetic sponges or foams, various ceramic and sintered glass and silicon products along with igneous gravels are also used as mechanical filter materials. Materials with a greater surface area provide both mechanical and biological filtration. Some filter materials, such as plastic “bioballs”, are best used for biological filtration.
With the notable exception of diatom filters, aquarium filters are rarely purely mechanical in action, as bacteria will colonise most filter materials effecting some degree of biological filtration. Activated carbon and zeolites are also frequently added to aquarium filters. These highly porous materials act as adsorbates binding various chemicals to their large external surfaces and also as sites of bacterial colonisation.
The simplest type of aquarium filter consists only of filter wool and activated carbon. The filter wool traps large debris and particles, and the activated carbon adsorbs smaller impurities. These should be changed regularly at suitable intervals. This is particularly important in the case of activated carbon filters, which may re-release their adsorbed contents in large (and therefore harmful) doses if they are allowed to saturate. 
 Types of aquarium filters
Numerous types of aquarium filters are commercially available, including:
 External filters
External filters remove water from the aquarium which is then pushed (or pulled) through a series of different levels filter media and returned to the aquarium. They are usually more effective and easier to maintain than internal filters.
 Canister filters
Compared to filters that hang on the back of the aquarium, canister-style external filters offer a greater quantity of filter materials to be used along with a greater degree of flexibility with respect to filter material choice. Water enters the canister filled with the chosen filter material through an intake pipe at the bottom of the canister, passes through the material, and is pumped back to the aquarium through an electric pump on the top of the canister. Benefits of this type of filter are that they can provide a high volume of filter material without reducing the internal space in the aquarium, and that they can be disconnected from the tank for cleaning/maintenance and replaced without disturbing the aquarium interior or occupants. Disadvantages of canister filters include the increased cost and complexity relative to internal filters and difficulties in cleaning the tubes which transfer water to and from the aquarium. There’s also the risk of a leak, which naturally is an issue for any filter placed outside of the aquarium.
 Diatom filters
Diatom filters are used only for sporadic cleaning of tanks, they are not continuously operated on aquariums. These filters utilise diatomaceous earth to create an extremely fine filter down to 1 µm which removes particulate matter from the water column.
 Trickle filters
Trickle filters, also known as wet/dry filters are another water filtration systems for marine and freshwater aquariums. This filter comes in two configurations, one which is placed on top of the aquarium (more rarely seen) and one which is placed below the aquarium (more common).
If the wet/dry filter is placed on top of the aquarium, water is pumped over a number of perforated trays containing filter wool or some other filter material. The water trickles through the trays, keeping the filter wool wet but not completely submerged, allowing aerobic bacteria to grow and aiding biological filtration. The water returns to the aquarium like rain.
Alternatively, the wet/dry filter may be placed below the tank. In this design, water is fed by gravity to the filter below the aquarium. Prefiltered water is delivered to a perforated plate (drip plate). Prefiltering may take place in the aquarium via a foam block or sleeve in the overflow, or weir siphon, or it may be prefiltered by filter wool resting on the perforated plate. The waste laden water from the aquarium spreads over the drip plate, and rains down through a medium. This may be a filter wool/plastic grid rolled into a circular shape (DLS or “Double Layer Spiral”) or any number of plastic media commonly known as Bio Balls. As the water cascades over the media, CO2 is given off, oxygen is picked up, and bacteria convert the waste from the tank into less harmful materials. From here the water enters the sump. The sump may contain a number of compartments, each with its own filtration material. Often, heaters and thermostats are placed in the sump.
 Baffle filters
Baffle filters are similar to wet and dry, trickle filters in that they are generally situated below the aquarium. This type of filter consists of a series of baffles that the water must pass through in order to reach the pump which is returning water to the aquarium. These baffles then act much like a series of canister filters and can be filled with different filter media for different purposes..
 Internal filters
Internal filters are, by definition, filters within the confines of the aquarium. These include the sponge filter, variations on the corner filter (pictured top right and left), foam cartridge filter and the undergravel filter. An internal filter may have an electric pump and thus be an internal power filter, often attached to the inside of aquaria via suction cups.
 Airlift filters
Sponge filters and corner filters (sometimes called box filters) work by essentially the same mechanism as an internal filter. Both generally work by airlift, using bubbles from an air pump rising in a tube to create flow. In a sponge filter, the inlet may only be covered by a simple open-cell block of foam. A corner filter is slightly more complex. These filters are oftenplaced in the corner on the bottom of the aquarium. Water enters slits in the box, passes through a layer of medium, then exits through the airlift tube to return to the aquarium. These filters tend to only be suitable for small and lightly-stocked aquaria. The sponge filter is especially useful for rearing fry where the sponge prevents the small fish from entering the filter.
 Undergravel filters
Undergravel filters consist of a porous plate which is placed beneath the gravel on the base of the aquarium and one, or more, uplift tubes. Historically, undergravel filters have been driven via air displacement. Air stones are placed at the base of uplift tubes which force water out of the uplift tube creating negative pressure beneath the undergravel filter plate. Water then percolates down through the gravel which itself is the filtration material. Greater flow rate of water through the gravel can be achieved via the use of water pump rather than air displacement.
Undergravel filters can be detrimental to the health of aquatic plants. Fine substrates such as sand or peat may clog an undergravel filter. Undergravel filters are not effective if the substrate bed is uneven. In an uneven gravel bed, water will flow only through the thin portions of the bed, leaving the more heavily covered areas to become anoxic. Because of this, animals that dig, such as cichlids, are best kept in an aquarium using some other type of filtration.
 Submersible pumps/filters
or circulation pumps
|Please help improve this article by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (October 2007)|
 Marine-specific systems
Marine aquaria have specialised needs and requirements, to this end the filtration of the marine aquarium is often more complex than freshwater aquariums.
 Protein Skimmers
Protein skimmers are filters used to fractionate and remove various dissolved organic contaminates typically from marine aquariums. The technique uses the chemical polarity of proteins and amino acids to remove the compounds in the foam produced by the filter. As very fine air bubbles are introduced into the fractionating column, the organic compounds attach to the bubbles. The air bubbles rise, and collect at the top of the Protein Skimmer, coagulating into a stiffer foam. The foam eventually builds up and overflows into a collection cup for complete removal. This is beneficial because the contaminates are removed from the system prior to decomposition into more toxic compounds. Protein skimmers are often used in combination with other filtration devices in marine aquarium setups.
 Deep sand beds
 Berlin method
The Berlin method of marine tank filtration is similar to the deep sand bed filtration technique in that relies on the action of anaerobic bacteria in the outer layers of porous rocks to degrade nitrate to gaseous nitrogen.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Riehl, Rüdiger. Editor.; Baensch, HA (1996. 5th Edn.). Aquarium Atlas. Germany: Tetra Press. ISBN 3-88244-050-3.
- ^ a b c Leibel WS (1993) A fishkeepers guide to South American cichlids. Tetra Press. Belgium pg 12-14.
- ^ a b Loiselle, Paul V. (1995). The Cichlid Aquarium. Germany: Tetra Press. ISBN 1-56465-146-0.
- ^ Sands D (1994) A fishkeepers guide to Central American cichlids. Tetra Press. Belgium pg 17-19.
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- ^ a b c Axelrod, Herbert, R. (1996). Exotic Tropical Fishes. T.F.H. Publications.. ISBN 0-87666-543-1.
- ^ Eade, Andrew (1999). Coldwater Fishkeeping. Ringpress Books. pp. 33. ISBN 1-86054-072-4.
- ^ Mary Bailey; Nick Dakin (2001). The Aquarium Fish Handbook. New Holland Publishers. pp. 26. ISBN 9781859741900.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Sanford, Gina (1999). Aquarium Owner’s Guide. New York: DK Publishing. pp. 164–167. ISBN 0-7894-4614-6.
- ^ Sandford G, Crow R (1991) The Manual of Tank Busters. Tetra Press, USA